O ouro do banco da Itália

L’Oro di Banca d’Italia

Mario Draghi respondeu diretamente às perguntas do parlamentar verde-amarelo sobre o assunto. Ele falou do direito do BCE de reter e gerenciar recursos monetários (com base no artigo 30 dos Estatutos do próprio BCE)
Há, portanto, dois aspectos: se ele administra e mantém, significa que não é o proprietário, ou seja, não pode vender; mas se for uma reserva de moeda, pode ser necessário vendê-lo (pelo menos em teoria) com base em necessidades evidentes.
Nessas situações, para vender (ato extraordinário), é necessária a autorização de uma autoridade superordenada no interesse do proprietário (povo italiano, bens inalienáveis; estado italiano, bens alienáveis); mas essa autoridade superordenada não existe.  Então, dos dois: ou o ouro é reserva, falta a autoridade de garantia (como no caso das propriedades de um menor ou de uma pessoa não considerada autônoma) ; ou o ouro não pode ser vendido e, em seguida, não é “reserva”. De fato, segundo e ainda mais delicado aspecto: o Estatuto do BCE fala de reservas de moeda, mas o ouro poderia ser considerado quando houvesse o acoplamento da moeda ao ouro (e às outras moedas com troca fixa entre eles). e conversibilidade do ouro estabelecida por acordos internacionais). Hoje não é mais assim: a venda de ouro nas várias moedas (ou vice-versa) não é decidida por acordos ou por uma autoridade, mas pelo mercado livre.
A questão seria muito simples do ponto de vista histórico: depois de 1971, era um recurso, não uma reserva (no sentido técnico-monetário). A única competência do BCE, portanto, diz respeito ao regime de autorização para o Banco da Itália em termos de sua supervisão, conforme exigido pelos Tratados e pelos próprios Estatutos.

Nino Galloni


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